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422 - Advanced Administrative Law (2 hours)
This seminar will consider various issues related to the legitimacy of pubic administration, including how legitimacy is impacted by its constitutional status, political oversight, public participation, and other elements of legitimacy. The seminar will also consider how legitimacy might differ in countries other than the United States. Students will be graded on their class participation (10%), blogs covering the different assignments (15%), and a two-draft paper (65%). The paper will satisfy the ULWR.

617 - Advanced Family Law: A Case Study (2 hours)
An in-depth analysis of the legal issues of family relationships, with special emphasis on the complex family law issues, current trends and topics in family law, and the intersection of family law issues with other fields of practice.

642 - Animal Law (2 hours)
A survey of legal, ethical, and policy issues regarding non-human animals. Topics include anti-cruelty laws; medical and scientific research; liability for injuries to, or caused by, animals; hunting laws; and standing for animals. Students will write a paper in this course. Offered on a periodic basis.

538 - Antitrust (2 hours)*
An overview of federal antitrust law or competition law, including laws related to agreements restraining trade (especially agreements between competitors), monopolization and attempted monopolization, unfair trade practices, and merger policy and practice. These topics are relevant to all businesses and their lawyers. The course focuses on learning the fundamentals and a practical approach for counseling clients in this area.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

417 - Art and Cultural Property Law (3 hours)*
The class will survey current issues in the law of art and cultural property including: defining art and cultural property; an artist’s rights in a work of art; the international trade of art and measures to limit that trade; the fate of art works in wartime; repatriation of art and antiquities; the role, structure and duties of museums; and other topics. In addition to regularly scheduled classes, students will also visit Reynolda House and other museums and galleries. Students will be evaluated based on quizzes, shorter papers written in response to readings, transactional drafting exercise(s), and a final exam, and have the option of completing a research paper to satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement. Pre-requisite for LLM students: civil procedure (for choice of law issues).
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

594 - Bioethics (2 hours)
In this course, students will experience how bioethics principles affect decision-making and strategy in the litigation and legislative processes. Students will act as a court, ethics board, governmental, or administrative agency and participate in simulations or write opinions and legislation addressing emerging legal issues created by society's advancement in medicine and technology, including genetics, medical experimentation and research, reproductive rights and end of life decisions.

657 - Biotechnology Law and Policy (2 hours)
Biotechnology is a major growth industry and both large and boutique law firms are establishing biotech or “life sciences” practice groups. This course surveys a range of legal topics in this field, such as: FDA regulation of drugs and devices, regulation of medical research, products liability, insurance coverage of pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, and genetics. Offered on a periodic basis.

662 - Broker-Dealer Regulation (2 hours)
The purpose of this course is to survey the framework and processes by which broker dealers, who are central participants in the American securities industry, are regulated. As recent events in the financial world so dramatically illustrate, effective and consistent regulation affects the global economy, helping to determine whether people enjoy any financial stability in their everyday lives.

541 - Business Drafting ULWR (2 hours)
This course focuses on legal drafting in the business setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical documents including corporate documents, loan and purchase contracts, partnership agreements, and employment agreements.

626 - Church, Law, and Ethics (2 hours)
This course intends to acquaint students with the basic principles of private business law that typically apply fairly equally to for-profit and non-for-profit enterprises, including churches. An equal purpose is to expose and examine how churches are treated differently – either more or less demandingly. It is here -- at the points of legal difference -- that we can see how society truly values religion in relation to other interests that compete for the attention, primacy, and recourses of people and government.

643 - Civil Rights Remedies (2 hours)*
Civil Rights Remedies examines ways to redress ongoing inequities based on race, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. The class in past years has analyzed inequalities in schools, housing, voting, immigration, and criminal justice, but exact topics are determined by current students. Readings will include edited Supreme Court opinions, but most of the readings will be excerpts from books and articles. Grades are based on class participation and a paper (there is a long-paper option for those wishing to satisfy the upper level writing requirement; students can otherwise choose the option of a short paper and a group project). * This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

590 - Comparative Constitutional Law (3 hours)
This course will explore questions central to public law issues in the United States and across the world. It will consider the purposes for which constitutions are established, and the processes of constitution-making and constitutional change. Students will write a paper contrasting the constitutional law on a particular topic of a given country with the comparable law in the United States. Weekly films will explore the culture of the countries selected by the students for their papers.

444 - Copyright and the Music Industry (2 hours)*
This seminar will survey the unique development of music copyright, from sheet music to sampling and the broad range of legal issues that arise from the tradition of consistent bad behavior by the music industry and its customers, generally futile technology-chasing legislation, and economic solutions to the philosophical problems of advancing science and the useful arts. Copyright law for music has evolved in a way that provides the perfect vehicle for not only IP education, but a broader legal education, because it has layered ownership rights in unique ways and has balanced those rights with a system of compulsory licenses and statutory royalties in lieu of technical infringements.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

586 - Copyrights (2 hours)*
This course focuses on the basics of copyright law, including: the subject matter of copyright; how copyright is secured and maintained; the scope of protection; and the duration, renewal and transfer of rights. It also explores enforcement of copyright, the impact of new technologies, and issues relating to access and use of copyrightable subject matter. This course may be used to satisfy the upper-level writing requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

423 - Corporate Governance Law Policy and Theory (2 hours)
This course studies the role of the corporation in society, state and federal corporate law, boards of directors and senior executives, executive pay, corporate takeovers, shareholder voice, corporate compliance, corporate culture, corporate lawyers and other "gatekeepers," corporations and politics, and comparative corporate governance. The course prepares students whose careers will require interaction with business interests and corporate clients.

434 - Critical Race Theory (2 hours)
This seminar explores the centrality of race as a foundational feature of American law. The study is cross-racial, comparative, and proactive, analyzing the converging and diverging experiences of indigenous peoples: Latinas/Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Americans, as well as different strategies for social justice.

577 - Cross-Border Business Transactions (2 hours)*
A study of a wide range of international transactions, including marketing of goods and services; license or transfer of technology; distribution and franchising; joint ventures; finance and governmental regulation. Various multi-lateral initiatives, such as the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the Sale of Goods, will be discussed. Discussion and analysis of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

452 - Cyber Terrorism, Information Warfare and Countermeasures (2 hours)
This course is intended to introduce the student to the new frontier of digital warfare, either standing alone or accompanied by military operations. The course will consider emerging issues such as classification of cyber-attacks as "force" or as terrorism so as to bring this new form of aggression within the ambit of the existing legal architecture. It will also introduce the student in general terms to the means and methods of digital warfare, defensive and offensive countermeasures, as well as, the current and emerging policies of the US toward hostile cyber operations. If time permits, the course may also include comparative responses other selected countries such as Britain and France.

591 - Disability Law (2 hours)
A study of the federal laws regarding the rights of the disabled in housing, employment, education, and federal benefit programs such as Medicaid. We will also touch upon the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

565 - Dispute Resolution (3 hours)
A study of traditional and alternative methods of resolving disputes; use of techniques such as arbitration and mediation will be studied. Negotiation theory and tactics will also be explored. Students who have taken Mediation in the past or who are currently enrolled in or who plan to take Mediation may not register for Dispute Resolution.

448 - Diversity and Discrimination (3 hours)*
From eugenics to sex stereotyping, this writing and skills seminar explores diversity and discrimination through film, media, case law, and law review articles. Topics of coverage include intra-racial use of racial slurs, implicit bias, sex discrimination, sexual harassment, appearance policies, discrimination in coeducation, sex stereotypes, stereotype threat, coping strategies, transgender issues, eugenics, genetic discrimination, accessibility issues, the impact of social media, and other hot topic issues. Students will learn the doctrine and then utilize what they know in a series of short writing exercises and skill simulations. For example, students will learn about the Americans with Disabilities Act and then apply what they know to conduct a mock accessibility audit to determine whether a person with a disability would have full and equal enjoyment of the facility. At the conclusion of the course, students will draft a paper exploring the overarching question of what equality means.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

650 - Election Law: Gerrymanders and Related Topics (2 hours)*
This course will focus on selected topics related to the legal structure of the political process in the United States. Topics covered will typically include the right to participate in the political process, reapportionment, redistricting, racial and political gerrymandering, the role of political parties, money and politics, legal issues in election administration, and remedies for defective elections. Offered on a periodic basis.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

512 - Environmental Law (2 hours)*
This course will cover major areas of environmental law with a focus on the period since 1970 and the major federal environmental statutes-the Clean Water, Clean Air and National Environmental Policy Act. These will be examined, where possible, through a contemporary lens examining their current application in North Carolina and elsewhere.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

572 - European Union Law (2 hours)
A survey of the significant laws and policies of the European Community, including the legal and institutional framework, the internal market, competition and environmental laws and an overview of external relations and commercial policy.

437 - Food Law and Policy (2 hours)
This course explores the many facets of law and policy affecting food production and consumption. Topics covered include food safety regulation, food labeling and misbranding litigation, seed patenting and GMOS, food access and nutrition assistance, and food justice. The course is cross-listed in the Divinity School and in the Graduate Programs in Sustainability.

584 - Freedom of Religion Under the Constitution (2 hours)*
This course concerns the First Amendment’s two Religion Clauses: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof….” These sixteen words are the most disputed and litigated of constitutional issues. The Supreme Court has not read the Religion Clauses literally. The Court has, as Prof. Steven Gey has written, “vacillated between a moderately separationist interpretation of the Religion Clauses and a more lenient approach that permits—sometimes requires—government action accommodating religious belief and practice. Of course the meaning of a constitutional provision is not coterminous with what the Supreme Court says the provision means. Lawyers are citizens and advocates, and frequently lawyers also are judges and public policymakers. Consequently, any meaningful discussion of the meaning of constitutional norms cannot rely only on what courts have said the Constitution means. Doctrines change, and lawyers are often the catalysts for those changes. This course is designed to examine a discrete interpretive issue: What should the Religion Clauses—i.e., what should the free exercise and anti-establishment norms of the First Amendment—mean in our modern, secular, religiously pluralistic democracy? In that respect, our discussion will often operate outside of the realm of court decision. We will begin with a look at the major Religion Clauses cases. Some of these you may have covered in Constitutional Law; many you will not have seen before. From there we will consider the (more interesting, perhaps) question of the role private religious belief should play in public policymaking. Specifically, we will consider: What is the proper role of religious conviction in the policy-making of the liberal state? In essence, this question is: What do the religion clauses of the 1st Amendment mean in contemporary American society, and—specifically to each student—what should they mean? This question will guide us for the rest of the course. Once each student has come to her/his position as to this core question, we will consider the following, particularly with regard to the part religious morality has played in shaping the policy of each question: Capital Punishment Abortion Physician-assisted Suicide Same-Sex Marriage
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

588 - Freedom of Speech, Press and Petition: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
The course will include problems and writing assignments to help students learn new areas (ones we were unable to cover in constitutional law I) and to explore familiar areas in greater depth. Topics that may be covered will include the creation of the media in the Founding Era, a couple of historic controversies as a lens to understand free expression issues, is there a First Amendment freedom of expression right to receive, in the privacy of one's home, sexually oriented materials that meet the obscenity test (e.g., over the computer, cable, etc.), first amendment rights of government employees, free expression and secrecy orders in civil cases, political gerrymanders and the First Amendment, the tension between freedom of expression and other interests in student free speech rights in public schools, and more. Students will be expected to write periodic 3-5 page papers or reflections on the reading or on problems. To satisfy the upper level legal writing requirement students will need to do a separate paper (topic approved) and to comply with other requirements. This will be in addition to the weekly or biweekly assignments.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

439 - Funeral and Cemetery Law (3 hours)
This course focuses on the laws regarding the status, treatment, and disposition of human remains. We are in the midst of a "death revolution" in the United States - cremation rates are rising fast and traditional funeral service providers are under stress. This course examines these trends and the role that the law is playing in shaping and responding to social norms and economic realities. Students will engage in significant legal research and writing in this course, "representing" a non-traditional funeral services provider and analyzing the provider's ability to operate under existing laws.

647 - Gender and the Law (2 hours)
This course will examine how the law affects women’s lives in a number of different contexts. The class will consider a number of different areas, including but not limited to employment, education, family responsibilities, violence against women, and other issues affecting women’s bodies, including pornography and prostitution. The class will also review a number of feminist legal theories and issues relating to the intersection of gender with race and class. Offered on a periodic basis.

623 - Great Jurists Seminar (3 hours)
Students will write a biography of a justice of the Supreme Court. The first part of the course will examine the nature of history; the second part will consist of studying the justices students have selected. Weekly films will explore the eras of American history the justices represent.

525 - Health Care Law and Policy (3 hours)*
This course introduces students to the structure, financing and regulation of the health care system and proposals for its reform. Legal topics include Medicare, medical staff disputes, health care antitrust, tax exemption, corporate organization, and insurance regulation.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

428 - Human Relations Practices and Business Torts (2 hours)
The course focuses on advising the small business on good personnel and management practices in today’s business world. The course includes analysis of the liability the small business faces from lawsuits by third parties and from tort suits between employees and employers. The course is offered in a distant format.

468 - Human Reproduction and the Law (2 hours)
The purpose of this class is to introduce students to the legal and policy issues currently implicated in human reproduction and give them the frameworks necessary to analyze the novel situations that will undoubtedly arise as family structures and reproductive technology evolve. The class will provide both an overview of the current legal landscape, as well as challenge students to think about what the law governing reproduction should be as a normative matter. While sometimes using international law as a point of comparison, the course will focus primarily on US law and policy.

558 - Immigration Law: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
Immigration Law: Selected Topics will be offered in Fall 2016 as a limited enrollment seminar on Immigration Policy. There are no prerequistes or co-requisite course requirements for Immigration Law: Selected Topics. Students have the option of enrolling in the course for upper level writing requirement credit.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

656 - International Environmental Law (2 hours)*
This seminar will examine and assess the legal regimes nations have developed to address international and global environmental problems, including climate change, ozone depletion, marine pollution, and the extinction of species.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

592 - International Human Rights (2 hours)*
This course examines human rights law at the United Nations and regional levels, and in US law. It also covers international criminal law.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

502 - Jurisprudence (3 hours)
Seminar discussion of the nature and sources of law, schools of jurisprudence, the nature of judicial process, and contemporary critical theories of the law. Weekly films supplement the material. A take home exam explores the question, "What is law"?

567 - Law and Economics (2 hours)
The course will consider the application of economic theory to a number of central issues dealt with by the legal system such as property rights, contract formation and enforceability, contract damages and product liability.

524 - Law and Medicine (2 hours)
An exploration of several legal aspects of the practice of medicine including the duty to treat, medical malpractice, informed consent, and hospital liability.

411 - Law, Business, and the American Economy (2 hours)
This course examines the mortgage foreclosure crisis and other recent phenomena that highlight the interplay of financing, law, and the American Economy. Limited enrollment encourages active class participation in an ever-changing field.

519 - Law, Literature, and Culture (3 hours)*
The course asks students to reflect on justice by examining ethical and moral issues faced by characters, including lawyers, in literature and film. Study of classic works in law and literature curriculum as well as of less often studied works and several films will give students new tools of analysis and moral perspective.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

535 - Legal History- American (3 hours)*
A study of how the law has reflected and shaped American culture. The course includes English origins of ideas of individual rights and limited government, controversies that shaped the American Revolution, the development of torts in the 19th century, and how the controversy over slavery shaped the Fourteenth Amendment. The course gives the student an opportunity to see some familiar legal issues and doctrines in a new perspective and to develop oral presentation and advocacy skills—e.g. in constructing and performing appellate arguments of historic cases.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

521 - Mass Media Law (2 hours)
This class examines the role of the media and communications in our society and deals with various bodies of law that regulate and impact the media and communications industries, including constitutional law, state tort law, federal and state statutes, and administrative regulations. Subject matter is presented in a multi-media environment.

456 - Meaning and Interpretation in Public and Private Law (2 hours)
With practicing lawyers in mind, this course not only explores meaning and interpretation of various constitutional and statutory provisions but also explores meaning and interpretation of contracts and other private law documents and instruments drawn from actual practice. Exploring interpretation and meaning of such real-world documents and instruments requires more than just studying canons of construction. It also requires exploring: (1) how legal language is a system of interrelated signs (an area of study called semiotics); (2) how various levels of legal meaning tie into or fail to tie into real-world experience (an area of study called semantics); (3) how speaker meaning can differ from literal meaning and what this means in actual practice (an area of study called pragmatics); (4) how linguistic success and failure can in large part turn on framing, categories, metaphors, and narratives lawyers wittingly or unwittingly use; and (5) how context in its various forms not only drives meaning but also determines any operative text itself. Facility in all these areas is essential to both litigation and transactional practice.

561 - Mergers and Acquisitions ULWR (2 hours)
An in-depth analysis of federal and state regulation of corporate takeovers to include acquisition techniques, legal protection afforded shareholders and others, federal tender offer and disclosure rules, state corporate fiduciary law and anti-takeover statutes. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

566 - National Security Law (2 hours)
A study of separation of powers, the legislative process, military jurisdiction, jurisdiction to try terrorists and other similar persons, and civil court review of military actions; application of U.S. and international law to national security law problems.

581 - Native American Law (2 hours)*
This course deals with legal protections for tribal sovereignty, the enforcement of the trust responsibility, the protection of land and natural resources, federal recognition, gaming and financing of tribal projects. This field of law supports a vibrant legal practice for attorneys in a complex regulatory environment.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

530 - Natural Resources (2 hours)
A study of the ownership, development, and use of natural resources as oil, gas, coal, water, and timber and an exploration of the tension between development and conservation. Coverage may include the management of resources on federal public lands, including hardrock mining, the leasing system for energy fuels, and protection of recreational and wilderness values. Offered on a periodic basis.

582 - Non-Profit Organization Law (3 hours)*
The goals of this Nonprofit experiential course are twofold: 1. to survey the substantive law governing nonprofit organizations from both state law sources (formation, governance, fiduciary duty of officers, directors and trustees, and related issues) and federal (mostly tax) law; and 2. to demonstrate understanding of the business and legal issues facing the modern nonprofit entity by researching, analyzing and assessing a nonprofit entity of the student’s choice.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

545 - Patent Law (2 hours)
A study of the policy and constitutional underpinnings of the U.S. Patent System including consideration of economic justifications; exploration of basic requirements of patentability including patentable subject matter, novelty and non-obviousness; overview of U.S. Patent Office procedures; exploration of patent infringement standards and procedures including claim construction, determination of liability, defenses and remedies; consideration of the role of patents in business transaction and licensing.

447 - Perspectives on Law Enforcement: Policing and Prosecutorial Accountability (3 hours)*
This seminar examines the responsibilities and conduct of both prosecutors and law-enforcement officers in the United States. We will cover topics including the role and responsibilities of prosecutors and police officers, various models of policing, forms of prosecutorial and police misconduct, legal claims that victims of such misconduct might bring against prosecutors and police officers, as well as defenses to those claims. We will discuss the merits and disadvantages of discretion in the criminal justice system and the value of mechanisms to constrain that discretion. We will think critically about various models used to hold prosecutors and police officers accountable for their conduct.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

507 - Poverty Law (2 hours)
This course will broadly study American poverty, poverty programs and constitutional, federal, state and municipal laws that directly affect the poor. Students will survey wealth disparities in the U.S. through demographic data relating to income, educational attainment, housing, access to medical care and voting.

460 - Privacy Law and the Internet (2 hours)*
This course will examine the current legal, political, social and technological aspects of U.S. privacy law. Topics will include: traditional privacy theory and torts; contracts; commercial and financial privacy; medical privacy; cyberlaw privacy (i.e., metadata, cookies, cybersecurity, revenge pornography); governmental privacy (i.e., surveillance, freedom of information, leakers like Edward Snowden); workplace privacy (i.e., algorithmic decision-making, trade secrecy); and international developments (i.e., the European Data Protection Directive, "right to be forgotten").
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

578 - Race and the Law (2 hours)
This seminar is designed to examine concepts of race and racism and how they intersect historically and currently with law in the United States. It is intended to equip students to think critically about legal policy, practice and analysis and how those areas impact race-related concerns. Typical topics have included concepts of race; race and constitutional interpretation; education; desegregation; and voting rights. The grade is based on a final paper that can be used to satisfy the upper level writing requirement; class attendance and participation in class discussion; and typically, three to five ungraded but required short reflection papers.

641 - Regulatory Law and Policy (3 hours)
This course examines legal, political, and policy aspects of government regulation with an emphasis on the public policy arguments that lawyers use when they appear before legislatures and regulatory agencies. Offered on a periodic basis.

682 - Securities Litigation (3 hours)*
Securities litigation is the body of law governing private lawsuits and governmental enforcement actions in the context of investments like stocks and bonds (“securities”). This course has a backward-looking focus on three types of illegal conduct. First, substantial attention is given to fraud, such as when big companies like Enron lie to their investors. Second, we explore insider trading. Is it illegal to get rich from a hot stock tip? Finally, we consider market manipulation, or the intentional creation of an artificial stock price.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

413 - Selected Topics in Social Science (2 hours)*
The course explores implicit (automatic/unconscious) racial attitudes and the law, focusing on the role of social sciences research in the law and how lawyers should use this research.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

651 - Sexual Identity and the Law (2 hours)
This course explores a wide variety of issues related to sexual identity and sexual orientation. With the law as the starting point, the overarching questions that define the place of the gay individual in American society will be examined. We will consider, among other topics, the regulation of sexuality, sexual orientation, gender roles, the workplace, the intersection of law and religion, same-sex relationships, and gay parenting. Much of the legal doctrine considered in this course will be constitutional in nature, including studies of the right to privacy, the First Amendment, and equal protection.

638 - Social Science, Race, and the Law (2 hours)
Survey of research from across the social sciences and psychology regarding the way prejudice functions in the brain, and potential responses of legal doctrine and institutions to these scientific insights. Topics will be chosen from the following: jury selection and performance, perceived credibility of expert witnesses, cross-racial eyewitness testimony, police profiling, capital-sentencing outcomes, judicial decision-making, and parental rights termination.

510 - State and Local Government (2 hours)
A study of the law of state and local government, legislative and municipal process, bill drafting and interest groups. Guest speakers include state and local legislators, mayors and elected officials. Study of the role of the lawyer in public process and representation.

443 - Sustainable Corporations (2 hours)
This course considers the sustainability of the modern US corporation – that is, whether the corporation is capable of meeting current social needs while enabling future generations to meet their needs. The course looks at the corporation’s current design: its externalization of social costs, the short-termism of corporate decision-making, and the “group think” culture of corporate leadership. It then considers some current responses to these non-sustainable attributes: environmental liabilities, the voluntary CSR movement, and institutional shareholder activism. The course concludes by considering paradigm shifts: revamped disclosure, new business forms, and reconceptualizations of corporate leadership. Students prepare a paper, presented in class at the end of the term, on a “corporate sustainability” topic of their choice.

542 - Taxation: International (3 hours)
A study of United States taxation of United States citizens and corporations earning income abroad and United States taxation of foreign corporations and citizens earning income in the United States. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.

544 - Taxation: Policy (2 hours)
A study of the social and economic consequences of current and proposed tax legislation. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.