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422 - Advanced Administrative Law (2 hours)
This seminar will consider various issues related to the legitimacy of pubic administration, including how legitimacy is impacted by its constitutional status, political oversight, public participation, and other elements of legitimacy. The seminar will also consider how legitimacy might differ in countries other than the United States. Students will be graded on their class participation (10%), blogs covering the different assignments (15%), and a two-draft paper (65%). The paper will satisfy the ULWR.

642 - Animal Law (2 hours)
A survey of legal, ethical, and policy issues regarding non-human animals. Topics include anti-cruelty laws; medical and scientific research; liability for injuries to, or caused by, animals; hunting laws; and standing for animals. Students will write a paper in this course. Offered on a periodic basis.

417 - Art and Cultural Property Law (3 hours)*
The class will survey current issues in the law of art and cultural property including: defining art and cultural property; an artist’s rights in a work of art; the international trade of art and measures to limit that trade; the fate of art works in wartime; repatriation of art and antiquities; the role, structure and duties of museums; and other topics. In addition to regularly scheduled classes, students will also visit Reynolda House and other museums and galleries. Students will be evaluated based on quizzes, shorter papers written in response to readings, transactional drafting exercise(s), and a final exam, and have the option of completing a research paper to satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement. Pre-requisite for LLM students: civil procedure (for choice of law issues).
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

594 - Bioethics (2 hours)
Students will act as a court or administrative agency and write opinions addressing emerging legal issues created by society's advancement in medicine and technology, including genetics, medical experimentation and research, reproductive rights and end of life decisions.

657 - Biotechnology Law and Policy (2 hours)
Biotechnology is a major growth industry and both large and boutique law firms are establishing biotech or “life sciences” practice groups. This course surveys a range of legal topics in this field, such as: FDA regulation of drugs and devices, regulation of medical research, products liability, insurance coverage of pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, and genetics. Offered on a periodic basis.

662 - Broker-Dealer Regulation (2 hours)
The purpose of this course is to survey the framework and processes by which broker dealers, who are central participants in the American securities industry, are regulated. As recent events in the financial world so dramatically illustrate, effective and consistent regulation affects the global economy, helping to determine whether people enjoy any financial stability in their everyday lives.

541 - Business Drafting ULWR (2 hours)
This course focuses on legal drafting in the business setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical documents including corporate documents, loan and purchase contracts, partnership agreements, and employment agreements.

626 - Church, Law, and Ethics (2 hours)
A study of the most important rules of contracts, torts, and statutory law that bind the Church as a business and social enterprise. This course is cross-listed with the Divinity School, where it carries the course number THS 622.

602 - Civil Law Tradition (2 hours)
This course traces the development of European civil law systems from their common source in Roman law and legal science to modern civil codes (in particular the Austrian, French, German, Swiss, and Dutch). The course will also examine the ongoing process of harmonization and unification of private law in the European Union.

643 - Civil Rights Remedies (2 hours)*
Civil Rights Remedies examines ways to redress ongoing racial disparities. We will specifically analyze school segregation, voting rights, housing discrimination, affirmative action, immigration, reparations, and incarceration rates. Readings will include edited Supreme Court opinions, but most of the readings will be excerpts from books and articles. Grades are based on class participation and a paper (there is a long-paper option for those wishing to satisfy the upper level writing requirement;students can otherwise choose the option of a short paper and a group project.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

590 - Comparative Constitutional Law (3 hours)
This course will explore questions central to public law issues in the United States and across the world. It will consider the purposes for which constitutions are established, and the processes of constitution-making and constitutional change.

583 - Comparative Law (2 hours)
This course introduces comparative methods of legal analysis, with a focus on the "civil law tradition" in Latin America. Study includes the development of the civil law tradition in Europe, the spread of that tradition to Latin America, and particular topics of Latin American law. Weekly graded papers; no final exam.

403 - Conflict of Laws (3 hours)
A study of the choice of law rules applicable where at least one of the operative facts in a case is connected with some state or country other than the one in which suit is brought.

423 - Corporate Governance Law Policy and Theory (2 hours)
This course studies the role of the corporation in society, state and federal corporate law, boards of directors and senior executives, executive pay, corporate takeovers, shareholder voice, corporate compliance, corporate culture, corporate lawyers and other "gatekeepers," corporations and politics, and comparative corporate governance. The course prepares students whose careers will require interaction with business interests and corporate clients.

500 - Criminal Procedure: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
A detailed study of one or more selected aspects of criminal procedure. The topics covered in recent years have included sentencing law, police accountability, and the jurisprudence of the death penalty. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

434 - Critical Race Theory (2 hours)
This seminar explores the centrality of race as a foundational feature of American law. The study is cross-racial, comparative, and proactive, analyzing the converging and diverging experiences of indigenous peoples: Latinas/Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Americans, as well as different strategies for social justice.

565 - Dispute Resolution (3 hours)
A study of traditional and alternative methods of resolving disputes; use of techniques such as arbitration and mediation will be studied. Negotiation theory and tactics will also be explored. Students who have taken Mediation in the past or who are currently enrolled in or who plan to take Mediation may not register for Dispute Resolution.

650 - Election Law and Democracy (2 hours)*
This course will focus on selected topics related to the legal structure of the political process in the United States. Topics covered will typically include the right to participate in the political process, reapportionment, redistricting, racial and political gerrymandering, the role of political parties, money and politics, legal issues in election administration, and remedies for defective elections. Offered on a periodic basis. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

562 - Employment Discrimination: Selected Topics (1 hour)
This course examines significant unresolved issues arising from the federal anti-discrimination statutes. Students will write two essays in response to the assigned readings. Students may not take this course and Employment Discrimination 513. Offered on a periodic basis. 2 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.

414 - Energy Law (2 hours)*
This course looks at the law and policy related to US energy sources and uses -- integrating legal, historical, technical, economic and environmental analysis. The readings come primarily from various online materials, including a student-created wikibook. Grading: (1) class participation [10%]; (2) open-book midterm quizzes [30%]; (3) a 7-10 page paper and in-class presentation on an energy law topic of student's choice [60%].
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

512 - Environmental Law (3 hours)
A selective survey of Federal approaches to public health and environmental regulation, including study of at least one of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act.

572 - European Union Law (2 hours)
A survey of the significant laws and policies of the European Community, including the legal and institutional framework, the internal market, competition and environmental laws and an overview of external relations and commercial policy.

660 - Financial Services Regulation (3 hours)
Financial Services Regulation is a seminar course that explores how “financial services” families are regulated under federal and state law in the United States in the wake of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which permitted affiliations, and now in the wake of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. The course will deal with the regulation of bank and thrift holding companies, banking institutions (generally), insurance companies and producers, broker-dealers, investment advisers and investment companies, and will focus on practical issues associated with “representing the highly regulated client” - where to find the law, how to apply the law and turn it into client advice and the consequences to attorneys as “institution-affiliated parties.” Team work, based on various charters and types of entities, will be a feature of the class, with each team having a “client.” Business Organizations #203 is a prerequisite.

584 - Freedom of Religion Under the Constitution (3 hours)
An examination of the law of religious freedom as fashioned by the U.S. Supreme Court, under the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

588 - Freedom of Speech, Press and Petition: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
This seminar course will address state and federal constitutional decisions in the First Amendment areas of speech, press and petition. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

439 - Funeral and Cemetery Law (3 hours)
The course focuses on the $20 billion funeral and cemetery industry. Students with interests in estate planning and elder law may be especially drawn to the course, which covers the rights of disposal of bodies, the treatment of remains, regulation of funeral directors and embalmers, consumer protection issues, grave relocation, and other topics. Students will have the option of a long paper that satisfies the upper level writing requirement.

647 - Gender and the Law (2 hours)
This course will examine how the law affects women’s lives in a number of different contexts. The class will consider a number of different areas, including but not limited to employment, education, family responsibilities, violence against women, and other issues affecting women’s bodies, including pornography and prostitution. The class will also review a number of feminist legal theories and issues relating to the intersection of gender with race and class. Offered on a periodic basis.

623 - Great Jurists Seminar (3 hours)
Students in this seminar will survey the jurisprudence of several famous judges and Justices, cutting across many subject matter lines and historical eras.

525 - Health Care Law and Policy (2 hours)
This course introduces students to the structure, financing and regulation of the health care system and proposals for its reform. Legal topics include Medicare, medical staff disputes, health care antitrust, HMOs and insurance regulation.

424 - Higher Education Law (2 hours)
The course examines the legal and policy issues that shape higher education in the United States and explores the history and structure of American colleges and universities; college admissions and financial aid; academic freedom and tenure; student rights; research ethics; governing boards; local ordinances that impact colleges and universities; privatization; issues of race, class, disability, gender and sexual orientation; and the role of university general counsels.

624 - Humanistic Dimensions of Contractual Relations (2 hours)*
Students will engage with the range of philosophical, sociological, and other theoretical accounts to explain the legal status of some agreements as contracts.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

558 - Immigration Law: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
This seminar will cover topics of current interest in immigration law. Past topics have included the intersection between immigration law and criminal law. Offered on a periodic basis. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

577 - International Business Transactions (2 hours)*
A study of a wide range of international transactions, including marketing of goods and services; license or transfer of technology; joint ventures; finance and governmental regulation. Various multi-lateral initiatives, such as the Vienna Convention on contracts for the sale of goods, will be discussed.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

504 - International Civil Litigation and Arbitration Seminar (3 hours)
This seminar surveys international civil litigation, primarily from a U.S. perspective, choice of law in transnational cases, and international commercial arbitration practice and procedure.

627 - International Criminal Law (2 hours)*
This class exposes students to the concepts and enforcement of international criminal law (human rights law; humanitarian law, and the influence of the common law and civil law traditions on international criminal law). Students will explore war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, and other international/transnational crimes, such as acts of terrorism. The class also explores the development of national, international and hybrid mechanisms for international criminal law enforcement, including international criminal tribunals and national prosecution.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

592 - International Human Rights (2 hours)*
The course will examine the international law of human rights from a moral as well as from a legal perspective.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

501 - International Law (3 hours)
An examination of the nature of international law, sources and evidence of international law and agreements, and international dispute resolution, including the use of force.

502 - Jurisprudence (3 hours)
Seminar discussion of some of the problems concerning the nature and sources of law, schools of jurisprudence, and the nature of judicial process with application to cases and other materials.

567 - Law and Economics (2 hours)
The course will consider the application of economic theory to a number of central issues dealt with by the legal system such as property rights, contract formation and enforceability, contract damages and product liability.

589 - Law and Valuation (2 hours)
This course considers the interplay of the law and modern valuation techniques. We look at modern valuation theory and methods, and their application in particular legal valuation contexts such as bankruptcy, equitable distribution, medical malpractice litigation, government takings and corporate buyouts. Students will present a group project and write a short paper on a topic of their choice. Offered on a periodic basis.

411 - Law, Business, and the American Economy (2 hours)
This course examines the mortgage foreclosure crisis and other recent phenomena that highlight the interplay of financing, law, and the American Economy. Limited enrollment encourages active class participation in an ever-changing field.

519 - Law, Literature, and Culture (3 hours)*
The course asks students to reflect on justice by examining ethical and moral issues faced by lawyers in literature and film. Study of classic works in law and literature curriculum as well as of less often studied works and several films will give students new tools of analysis and moral perspective. These tools will be brought to bear on the study of some legal opinions that will be read as narratives in a specific context.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

535 - Legal History- American (3 hours)*
A study of how the law has reflected and shaped American culture. The course includes English origins of ideas of individual rights and limited government, controversies that shaped the American Revolution, the development of torts in the 19th century, and how the controversy over slavery shaped the Fourteenth Amendment.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

421 - Legal History: Selected Topics (3 hours)
The course will cover the Supreme Court of the United States from the Depression through the Warren Court. This period witnesses Franklin Roosevelt’s battle with a Court that reflected the Lochner philosophy, through the President’s success in changing the membership of the court, the Civil Rights revolution--including protests that challenged the racial caste system and Lyndon Johnson's successful effort to obtain the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act 1965.

561 - Mergers and Acquisitions-ULWR (2 hours)
An in-depth analysis of federal and state regulation of corporate takeovers to include acquisition techniques, legal protection afforded shareholders and others, federal tender offer and disclosure rules, state corporate fiduciary law and anti-takeover statutes. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

566 - National Security Law (2 hours)
A study of separation of powers; the legislative process; military jurisdiction; and civil court review of military actions.

581 - Native American Law (2 hours)*
This course deals with legal protections for tribal sovereignty, the enforcement of the trust responsibility, the protection of land and natural resources, federal recognition, gaming and financing of tribal projects. This field of law supports a vibrant legal practice for attorneys in a complex regulatory environment.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

545 - Patent Law (2 hours)
A study of the policy and constitutional underpinnings of the U.S. Patent System including consideration of economic justifications; exploration of basic requirements of patentability including patentable subject matter, novelty and non-obviousness; overview of U.S. Patent Office procedures; exploration of patent infringement standards and procedures including claim construction, determination of liability, defenses and remedies; consideration of the role of patents in business transaction and licensing.

507 - Poverty Law (2 hours)
This course will broadly study American poverty, poverty programs and constitutional, federal, state and municipal laws that directly affect the poor. Students will survey wealth disparities in the U.S. through demographic data relating to income, educational attainment, housing, access to medical care and voting.

578 - Race and the Law (2 hours)
This seminar will examine the relationship between race and law in America. It will explore the role that the law has played throughout American history in areas such as slavery, the administration of justice, public accommodations, voting rights, the Civil Rights movement, and interracial marriage. Prerequisites: Constitutional Law I.

632 - Real Estate Transactions Seminar (3 hours)
This course will survey the legal and business issues relating to the acquisition, development, leasing, and disposition of commercial real estate, with a focus on the issues arising in the development and ownership of large commercial developments such as shopping centers and office buildings. About half the semester will be spent on commercial real estate purchase agreements and the other half on a commercial lease. The course includes a skills component and students will participate in negotiating and drafting a real estate contract (purchase agreement or lease) for a hypothetical client. Property 111 is a prerequisite.

641 - Regulatory Law and Policy (3 hours)
This course examines legal, political, and policy aspects of government regulation with an emphasis on the public policy arguments that lawyers use when they appear before legislatures and regulatory agencies. Offered on a periodic basis.

413 - Selected Topics in Social Science (2 hours)*
The course explores implicit (automatic/unconscious) racial attitudes and the law, focusing on the role of social sciences reasearch in the law and how lawyers should use this research.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

651 - Sexual Identity and the Law (2 hours)
This course explores a wide variety of issues related to sexual identity and sexual orientation. With the law as the starting point, the overarching questions that define the place of the gay individual in American society will be examined. We will consider, among other topics, the regulation of sexuality, sexual orientation, gender roles, the workplace, the intersection of law and religion, same-sex relationships, and gay parenting. Much of the legal doctrine considered in this course will be constitutional in nature, including studies of the right to privacy, the First Amendment, and equal protection.

638 - Social Science, Race, and the Law (2 hours)
Survey of research from across the social sciences and psychology regarding the way prejudice functions in the brain, and potential responses of legal doctrine and institutions to these scientific insights. Topics will be chosen from the following: jury selection and performance, perceived credibility of expert witnesses, cross-racial eyewitness testimony, police profiling, capital-sentencing outcomes, judicial decision-making, and parental rights termination.

510 - State and Local Government (2 hours)
A study of the nature and organization of municipal corporations, state legislative control of local government units, municipal police power, tort and contractual liability, constitutional and statutory limitations on taxation, borrowing, and the expenditure of funds.

443 - Sustainable Corporations (2 hours)
This course considers the sustainability of the modern US corporation – that is, whether the corporation is capable of meeting current social needs while enabling future generations to meet their needs. The course looks at the corporation’s current design: its externalization of social costs, the short-termism of corporate decision making, and the “group think” culture of corporate leadership. It then considers some current responses to these non-sustainable attributes: environmental liabilities, the voluntary CSR movement, and institutional shareholder activism. The course concludes by considering paradigm shifts: revamped disclosure, new business forms, and reconceptualizations of corporate leadership. Students prepare a paper, presented in class at the end of the term, on a “corporate sustainability” topic of their choice.

542 - Taxation: International Tax (3 hours)
A study of United States taxation of United States citizens and corporations earning income abroad and United States taxation of foreign corporations and citizens earning income in the United States. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.

544 - Taxation: Policy (2 hours)
A study of the social and economic consequences of current and proposed tax legislation. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.